Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation by Teresa J. Bandosz

By Teresa J. Bandosz

Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation offers a complete precis of the environmental purposes of activated carbons. with the intention to comprehend the removing of contaminants and toxins on activated carbons, the theoretical bases of adsorption phenomena are mentioned. the results of pore constitution and floor chemistry also are addressed from either technology and engineering views. every one bankruptcy offers examples of actual purposes with an emphasis at the position of the carbon floor in adsorption or reactive adsorption. the sensible points addressed during this e-book disguise the wide spectrum of functions from air and water cleansing and effort garage to war gasoline removing and biomedical applications.

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Usually, laboratory reactors with a low carbon dioxide mass flow vs. mass of carbon, operate under chemical control, whereas high carbon dioxide mass flow vs. ) fall under diffusion control [37]. 8 P/P° Fig. 12. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms of COj activated carbons from a bituminous coal char, with activation burn-offs of 25, 48 and 62% [38] An example of the variation of porosity development with the activation degree can be observed in Fig, 12. This corresponds to the activation with CO2 of a bituminous coal char at 25, 48 and 62% bum-off.

The mesopore development could be higher at high temperatures). • AC-700 400 • AC-720 •• AC-733 - AC-750 350 " AC-770 - AC-780 - ' " / d 300 j | . 0 p/pO Fig. 11. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms for steam anthracite based carbons with different burn-off degrees. 3. Carbon dioxide activation The heterogeneous reaction between carbon and carbon dioxide yields carbon monoxide: C + CO2 o 2CO AH=159kJmor (10) 23 Types of Carbon Adsorbents and their Production following an endothermic pattern, which is positive for the activation process.

It has the advantage of having a higher gasification kinetics and, at the same time, it operates under chemical reaction control up to very high temperatures. This ensures the development of porosity while the reaction is taking place. At industrial scale, direct fire-heated rotary kilns and multiple hearths are commonly used in steam activation. The type of reactor is also an important factor, although to a lesser extent than the activation agent, in determining the final properties of the activated carbon, due to the different characteristics of the gas-solid contact.

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