Adam Smith - An Inquiry Into The Nature And Causes Of The by Fred R. Glahe

By Fred R. Glahe

An Inquiry into the character and explanations of the Wealth of countries is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith. it's a sincerely written account of economics on the sunrise of the commercial Revolution, in addition to a rhetorical piece written for the widely trained person of the 18th century - advocating a unfastened industry economic climate as extra efficient and better to society.The paintings is credited as a watershed in historical past and economics because of its finished, principally actual characterization of monetary mechanisms that live to tell the tale in sleek economics; and likewise for its potent use of rhetorical method, together with structuring the paintings to distinction genuine global examples of unfastened and fettered markets.---Исследование о природе и причине богатства народов (англ. An Inquiry into the character and reasons of the Wealth of countries) — основная работа шотландского экономиста Адама Смита, опубликованная nine марта 1776 года во времена Шотландского просвещения.Книга оказала значительное влияние на экономическую теорию и в частности на политическую экономию.Ещё при жизни Адама Смита книга выдержала пять изданий в Англии (в 1776, 1778, 1784, 1786 и 1789), была издана во Франции (первый перевод в 1779 году) и в Германии. Огромное количество изданий было сделано после смерти Смита (1790 год).Трактат состоит из five книг:
Причины увеличения производительности труда и порядок, в соответствии с которым его продукт естественным образом распределяется между классами народа;
О природе капитала, его накоплении и применении;
О развитии благосостояния у разных народов;
О системах политической экономии;
О доходах монарха или государства.

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In the market of Europe, in the French coin and in the Dutch coin, an ounce of fine gold exchanges for about fourteen ounces of fine silver. In the English coin, it exchanges for about fifteen ounces, that is, for more silver than it is worth, according to the common estimation of Europe. But as the price of copper in bars is not, even in England, raised by the high price of copper in English coin, so the price of silver in bullion is not sunk by the low rate of silver in English coin. Silver in bullion still preserves its proper proportion to gold, for the same reason that copper in bars preserves its proper proportion to silver.

His maintenance is generally advanced to him from the stock of a master, the farmer who employs him, and who would have no interest to employ him, unless he was to share in the produce of his labour, or unless his stock was to be replaced to him with a profit. This profit makes a second deduction from the produce of the labour which is employed upon land. The produce of almost all other labour is liable to the like deduction of profit. In all arts and manufactures, the greater part of the workmen stand in need of a master, to advance them the materials of their work, and their wages and maintenance, till it be completed.

Such enhancements of the market price may last as long as the regulations of policy which give occasion to them. The market price of any particular commodity, though it may continue long above, can seldom continue long below, its natural price. Whatever part of it was paid below the natural rate, the persons whose interest it affected would immediately feel the loss, and would immediately withdraw either so much land or no much labour, or so much stock, from being employed about it, that the quantity brought to market would soon be no more than sufficient to supply the effectual demand.

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