By George Blyn
In a constructing economic climate, agriculture must never purely offer for a turning out to be population, but additionally produce a surplus for funding. For an historic, custom-dominated land like India, how does agriculture try and meet those calls for? during this booklet, the commercial heritage of India's agriculture and the level of its improvement, from 1891 to independence (1947), is heavily and authoritatively tested in a research of output, acreage, and yield in line with acre for the eighteen plants that represent so much of India's agriculture.
The nature of switch for every of those eighteen vegetation, and for the foodgrain, nonfoodgrain, and all-crop teams is defined and analyzed for the fifty-six-year interval as a complete, in addition to for shorter sessions, for British India and 6 significant areas. Output and alternate facts are mixed to figure out traits within the availability of vegetation. those traits are in comparison with inhabitants figures to point adjustments in India's welfare. to provide an explanation for the developments in acre productiveness, shut scrutiny is given to alterations m the composition of output, depth of cultivation, agricultural know-how, and actual environment.
An wide remedy of the methodological difficulties encountered in assembling enough crop information and statistical measurements precedes the research of agricultural improvement. a correct account needs to stability the multitude of variables serious about the complicated process wherein agricultural details used to be compiled and evaluated: the reliability of the village recorders, the adjustments in boundary traces and the ensuing adjustments in files, the impression of weather and international markets, in addition to the bigger styles of background and nature, war and catastrophe.
The entire Appendix comprises, between different resource fabrics, the once a year facts for person vegetation and crop aggregates and their development charges for person many years. The textual content comprises various tables, charts, and maps.
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Additional info for Agricultural Trends in India, 1891-1947: Output, Availability, and Productivity
Zamindari areas of two provinces, where revenue assessment was fixed permanently or for long periods of time, were another type of omission, involving Central Provinces up to 1897/98 and a large part of Madras up to about 1906 /07. Adjustments for these omissions are discussed in chapter thr;ee. 2, indicating no Estimates reports for crops in certain provinces. Output was usually nil or negligible in these cases because of unsuitable physical conditions for the particular crops. The blanks in the larger provinces for groundnut, jute, and tea are examples of this.
Assam output, acreage times estimated· yield per acre, was subtracted from Eastern Bengal output to obtain Greater 'Bengal output, and yield per acre for the latter region was obtained by dividing output by acreage. Since rice is the important crop in both regions, a more elaborate method tvas employed to make this adjustment. Yield per acre was estimated for each year in the Greater Bengal region from the simple linear· regression of Greater Bengal yield per acre on that 'of Greater Bengal plus Assam combined during 1911/12-28/29.
Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa are combined as Greater Bengal. Punjab, North West Frontier, and Delhi are combined in Greater Punjab. 2), make the least suitable combination of provinces. Assam and Ajmer-Merwara are included in the British India aggregates but not in the regional plan. (Area of the regions is given in Appendix, Table 1 B; regional populations are given in Ap pendix, Table 4 C. ) Eighteen crops, all the major crops, are included in this study-rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, barley, gram, sugarcane, sesamum, rape and mustard, linseed, groundnut, cotton, jute, indigo, tobacco, an� tea-all the crops for which there were sufficient primary data to obtain continuous series over the whole period.