An Introduction to Phonetics by Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan

By Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan

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The upper teeth are also used when you say /f/ and /v/. In this case however, air is being forced through the upper teeth and lower lip. 3. ALVEOLAR RIDGE An alveolar sound is produced when the tongue tip, or blade, touches the bony prominence behind the top teeth. This prominence is in fact that part of the gum which lies behind the upper teeth. In English, the following phonemes are alveolar: /t/ as in tin /tɪn/, /d/ as in din /dɪn/, /s/ as in sin /sɪn/, /z/ as in zip /zɪp/, /l/ as in look /lʊk/, /r/ as in roof /ru:f/, and /n/ as in /night /naɪt/.

Oral), and (d) whether the airstream passes through the middle of the oral cavity or along the side(s) (non-lateral vs. lateral). An example of this can be found by looking at the following words: nine /naɪn/ dine /daɪn/ line /laɪn/ They all begin with voiced, alveolar consonants /n/, /d/, and /l/. Yet, they are all clearly different in both sound and meaning. The kinds of constriction made by the articulators are what make up this further dimension of classification. There are two common kinds of constriction that often occur in English: plosive and fricative.

Thus, velar sounds are usually made when the back of the tongue is pressed against the soft palate. They include the /k/ in cat, the /g/ in girl and the /ŋ/ in hang. The glide /w/ is also regarded as a labiovelar sound, because it simultaneously uses both lips whilst raising the back of the tongue towards the velum. Try saying /wheel/ and /win/ and feel the position of your tongue. 6. GLOTTIS Glottal sounds are those sounds that are made in the larynx through the closure or narrowing of the glottis.

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