By J M Cushing; Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences
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Extra info for An introduction to structured population dynamics
The toxic effect of butyltins was also recognized in other bivalves, especially mussels, and in gastropods. Several studies in the 1980s established a link between TBT exposure and ‘imposex’ (the imposition of male sexual characteristics on females) in certain neogastropods, and the decline of populations in the waters off southwestern England (Smith 1981; Bryan et al. 1986). , <10 ng/l) (Bryan et al. 1986), also the concentration range at which shell deformities and larval mortalities occur (Alzieu 1991).
The Declaration will have to be accompanied by appropriate documentation such as a paint receipt or contractor invoice. Following Resolution 2, adopted with the Convention, three guidelines have been developed to ensure the implementation of the Convention. These were adopted at the 48th and 49th sessions of MEPC, as follows: Guidelines for survey and certification of anti-fouling systems on ships, Guidelines for brief sampling of anti-fouling systems on ships, and Guidelines for inspection of anti-fouling systems on ships.
C) Development of alternative, less harmful antifouling systems should be encouraged. (d) Alternative biocidal systems should be shown to be considerably less harmful to the marine environment than TBT. (e) Criteria for substances and/or methods used as antifouling systems should be developed. 5 years or less would be needed ahead of a total ban. (g) As a long-term issue, mandatory measures needed to be developed to bring about a complete ban on TBT, to prevent unfair competition. (h) An instrument containing mandatory measures for antifouling systems should be developed as a matter of urgency, taking into account enforcement and enforceability of such measures.