By Richard M. Warren
This revised and up-to-date 3rd variation describes the character of sound, how sound is analyzed via the auditory method, and the foundations and ideas governing our interpretation of auditory enter. It covers many issues together with sound and the auditory method, finding sound resources, the foundation for loudness judgments, notion of acoustic sequences, perceptual recovery of obliterated sounds, speech construction and notion, and the relation of listening to to belief regularly.
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Additional info for Auditory Perception : an Analysis and Synthesis
The induced movement of the adjacent inner hair cells could then stimulate the afferent fibers of the auditory nerve. The basilar membrane, according to Braun, plays no functional mechanical role at low levels of stimulation. However, at high stimulus levels, the movement of the basilar membrane function could act as a tuned absorber of excessive vibrational energy, preventing damage to the fragile stereocilia (that exhibit a passive resonance at these levels). Braun argued that the extremely low sound energy available at threshold is insufficient to move the relatively massive basilar membrane appreciably, while the slender and delicate stereocilia require very little energy to move at their particular resonant frequencies.
Atomic nuclei with an odd number of nucleons (protons plus neutrons) each have an angular momentum, or spin, that results in a weak electromagnetic field with a characteristic resonant frequency. When the fMRI procedure is used to study brain function, the subject’s head is placed inside a coil producing a brief series of high-energy radio frequency (RF) bursts that are tuned to match the resonant frequency of hydrogen nuclei. 31 32 Sound and the auditory system The nuclei absorb some of the energy of the bursts, and line up with the orientation of the field.
The cochlear nucleus has about 90,000 neurons, the superior olivary complex (together with the trapezoid body) 34,000, the lateral lemniscus 38,000, the inferior colliculus 400,000, the medial geniculate 500,000, and the auditory cortex 100 million (Worden, 1971). Although the nature of interactions and processing of information along the afferent auditory pathway is still obscure, the large number of neurons within subcortical centers relative to the number of auditory nerve fibers indicates both the importance and complexity of subcortical processing.