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Extra resources for Biochar for environmental management: science and technology
Due to the longevity of biochar in soil, accumulation of heavy metals by repeated and regular applications over long periods of time that can occur for other soil additions may not occur with biochar. Biochar to produce energy Capturing energy during biochar production and, conversely, using the biochar generated during pyrolysis bioenergy production as a soil amendment is mutually beneficial for securing the production base for generating the biomass (Lehmann, 2007a), as well as for reducing overall emissions (see Chapter 18; Gaunt and Lehmann, 2008).
And Woods, W. I. , J. , Zech,W. and Glaser, B. ,Wirick, S. and Jacobsen, C. , Gaunt, J. and Rondon, M. (2006) ‘Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review’, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, vol 11, pp403–427 Leinweber, P. -R. , Skjemstad, J. , Luizão, F. , Petersen, J. and Neves, E. G. (2006) ‘Black carbon increases cation exchange capacity in soils’, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol 70, pp1719–1730 Liebig, J. von (1878) Chemische Briefe, C. F.
A further possible cause of micropores is from voids (holes) within hexagonal planes (Bourke et al, 2007). Heteroatoms, in particular oxygen (O), are predominantly located on the edges of ordered sheets as components of various functional groups (Boehm, 1994, 2002). 335nm) is probably not achieved under typical pyrolysis conditions (<1000°C) due to the formation of O functional groups at the sheet edges, which through steric or electronic effects prevent the close packing of the sheets (Laine and Yunes, 1992).